Poultry as business is rapidly gaining popularity. This phenomenon has several explanations. First of all, it is a small start-up capital that will be required to start breeding poultry. And poultry is highly productive, providing a rapid return on your buck. For example, broilers can gain weight twice as fast than any other breed of chickens. To broilers grew rapidly and were not ill, you must pay particular attention to their feed ration. It should be balanced, contain useful vitamins and minerals. In addition, the feed must meet all requirements of health, be clean and without any unwanted impurities.
Unfortunately, the qualitative feeds are very rare today. According to FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) 25% of world grain reserves are contaminated with mycotoxins – poisonous waste products of mold fungi. To date,there no means, which would be 100% secured the grain products from the ingress of mycotoxins. The fact is that contamination can occur at any of the stages: during growing crops, harvesting, storage or transport. In total there are more than four hundred types of mycotoxins. Each of them has its own biochemical and toxicological characteristics and mechanism of action. A common feature of all the mycotoxins – toxicity, absolutely all of them are harmful to a living organism.
After getting toxic substances into in the body a disturbance of life functions is observed. In broilers productivity is reduced, the kidneys and liver are affected, there are a drop in egg production, a defeated feathers. And these are not all the consequences of the action of mycotoxins..
Mycotoxins cause problems during incubation
Poultry industry has several branches: egg, meat, breeding.
The main goal of poultry breeding is to obtain eggs for incubation. It is important to know that mycotoxins can adversely affect not only the adult chickens, but also on their offspring. Poor quality, contaminated food can cause a change in yolk color (becomes brown shade), disruption of glands, toxic dystrophy, an early embryo mortality (50%). Survived chickens will be weak and poorly developed, up to 80% of it can be lost in the first 10 days.
Scientists have found that the toxin can cause a qualitative change in the content of the egg, which has a negative effect on embryogenesis. As a result, disturbances in the formation of the skeleton, limbs atrophy, deformities and other genetic mutations can occure. In recent years, embriotoxicosis is increasingly fixed in dead embryos. Pathological changes in the liver were found. The organ may be underdeveloped, enlarged or be of abnormal shape.
According to the research of domestic and foreign experts, incubation reduction occurs for the following reasons (at % ratio):
- Failure to comply with the conditions of storage of eggs – 25%;
- Violation of feeding – 25%;
- Bacterial contamination of eggs, poultry disease – 37%;
- Genetic mutations and malfunctions – 5%;
- Violation of technology incubation process – 7.5%.
Violation of feeding includes not only an unbalanced diet, but also the use of contaminated feed with mycotoxins that cause illness and disease in poultry. Thus, the second and the third point is closely related to each other, which together increases the risk of decreasing the incubation up to 62%.
Methods of prevention of toxicosis in poultry
The problem is better to prevent than to deal with its consequences. Therefore, for the prevention of diseases of embryos, it is recommended to carry out a biological control for the next plan:
- Biochemical analysis of hatching eggs at least 2 times per month;
- Weekly biocontrol, candling and weighing eggs;
- Keeping records of the weak and sickly young;
- Conducting autopsy incubation wastes;
- Monthly bacteriological control of chick embryos.
Properties of mycotoxins. The impact of mycotoxins on poultry.
All of mycotoxins cause negative influence, but the most dangerous for poultry are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins and T-2 toxin.
Aflatoxins – poisonous toxins that cause malignant tumors. In poultry industry these toxins impair growth of broilers, reduce the efficiency of nutrient feed substances, lower % of fertilized eggs and hatchability. Aflatoxin B1 leads to capillary fragility, weakness in the legs, causes hemolytic anemia.
Ochratoxins – a group of mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. The most common is ochratoxin A, which impairs the growth of poultry, affects the kidney and liver cells, disrupts the feathers process, worsens the quality of hatching eggs.
Fumonisins are produced by mold fungi of the genus Fusarium, Lesiola. Feeds with the presence of fumonisin can cause liver necrosis, abnormal increase of internal organs and sudden death of livestock.
T-2 toxin behaves differently. It depends on the concentration and duration of ingestion. In hens T-2 toxin can cause damage to the oral mucosa, necrotic stomatitis, anemia, decreased egg production and others.
Remember, if the feed contains several mycotoxins, the consequences can be the most unpredictable. In this case, you should act immediately!
Effective tool in the fight against mycotoxins in poultry
To date, one of the most effective tools in the fight against mycotoxins is recognized as an innovative product “Mikasil” by company “Globus” production. “Mikasil” is a bipolar mycotoxin binder which is resistant to an alkaline environment, getting in the gastrointestinal tract. Its effect is similar to a sponge, it soaks up and adsorbs all toxic substances (mycotoxins) and removes them from the organism unchanged. “Mikasil” is a reliable tool that will help in the fight against mycotoxins!